The idea of a ‘Third Force’ is familiar to readers of Graham Greene’s The Quiet American.
The Quiet American is an anti-war novel by British author Graham Greene, first published in United Kingdom in 1955 and in the United States in 1956. It was adapted into films in 1958 and 2002. The book draws on Greene’s experiences as a war correspondent for The Times and Le Figaro in French Indochina 1951–1954. He was apparently inspired to write The Quiet American in October 1951 while driving back to Saigon from Ben Tre province. He was accompanied by an American aid worker who lectured him about finding a “third force in Vietnam”. Greene spent three years writing the novel, which foreshadowed US involvement in Vietnam long before it became publicly known. The book was the initial reason for Graham Greene being under constant surveillance by US intelligence agencies from the 1950s until his death in 1991, according to documents obtained in 2002 by The Guardian under the US Freedom of Information Act.
Alden Pyle is the “quiet American” of the title. A CIA agent working under cover, Pyle is thoughtful, soft-spoken, intellectual, serious, and idealistic. He comes from a privileged East Coast background. His father is a renowned professor of underwater erosion who has appeared on the cover of Time magazine; his mother is well respected in their community. Pyle is a brilliant graduate of Harvard University. He has studied theories of government and society, and is particularly devoted to a scholar named York Harding. Harding’s theory is that neither Communism nor colonialism is the answer in foreign lands like Vietnam, but rather a “Third Force”, usually a combination of traditions, works best. Pyle has read Harding’s numerous books many times and has adopted Harding’s thinking as his own. Pyle also strives to be a member of this “Third Force”. U.S. military counter-insurgency expert Edward Lansdale, who was stationed in Vietnam 1953-1957, is sometimes incorrectly cited as a model for Pyle’s character.
Images from Syrian TV after a bomb in Damascus
A THIRD FORCE IN SYRIA
Al Nusrah Front claims suicide attack at hospital, joint operation with Chechen fighters
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From THE LONG WAR JOURNAL
By Bill Roggio, November 23 2012
The Al Nusrah Front for the People of the Levant, an al Qaeda-linked jihadist group that is fighting Bashir al Assad’s regime in Syria, has claimed credit for yet another suicide attack as well as another joint operation with Chechen fighters.
Al Nusrah claimed the attacks in a series of three statements released on jihadist websites on Nov. 21. The statements were translated by the SITE Intelligence Group.
The suicide attack took place at a hospital in the contested city of Aleppo. Al Nusrah said the “French hospital” was being used as “the headquarters of the army and the tyrant’s [thugs].” The terror group did not provide a date for the attack.
The suicide attack was executed by “the knight Abu ‘Aun al Shamali,” who used a car bomb “laden with 2 tons of explosives.” The statement was accompanied by pictures of the car bomb as well as the explosion at the hospital. Al Nusrah then detonated a car bomb parked outside the hospital and launched “an armed attack by a group of mujahideen on what remained of the headquarters.”
Al Nusrah has been the most active jihadist group in Syria. It has claimed credit for 36 of the 44 reported suicide bombings in Syria that the The Long War Journal has tallied since December 2011 [see list below]. Since the end of August, Al Nusrah has claimed credit for launching 18 suicide attacks.
n addition to the suicide attack in Aleppo, Al Nusrah claimed it launched, “with the participation of the battalion of Chechen emigrants,” several assaults against Air Defense Brigade 602’s base in Handarat.
“The mujahideen had made previous attempts to storm the brigade on November 6-8, and the most recent came on November 18 and 19,” the Al Nusrah Front statement said, according to SITE. Al Nusrah claimed that its snipers killed three soldiers and that its fighters entered the base and seized two machine guns.
Al Nusrah also released two photographs associated with the raid on the air defense base in Handarat. One photograph shows a map of the base; the other shows fighters standing next to an Islamist flag.
Al Nusrah has conducted at least one other joint operation with Chechen fighters in Syria over the past two months. On Oct. 11, Al Nusrah commanded a group of “Chechen emigrants” as well as a battalion from the supposedly secular Free Syrian Army when the joint force overran a Syrian air defense and Scud missile base in Aleppo.
Doku Umarov, the emir of the Islamic Caucasus Emirate in southern Russia, addressed the issue of jihad in Syria in a videotape that was released on Nov. 13, according to Kavkaz Center.
In the videotape, Umarov addressed “my brothers who are doing jihad in Syria against the regime,” and warned them not to fight to “replace the regime of Bashar al Assad with Turkish or Saudi or Egyptian or American or English money, with another pagan idol under the cover of democracy.”
Reported or suspected suicide bombings in Syria:
The dates given below are, in most cases, the dates of the attacks. In a few cases, when the date of a claimed attack is unknown, the date of Al Nusrah’s claim of responsibility is used. So far, no other group has claimed responsibility for suicide attacks in Syria since December 2011.
Dec. 23, 2011 – Two car bombings in Damascus on this day are the first known suicide attacks in Syria since the rebellion began nine months earlier. The attacks targeted the regime’s intelligence offices, killing at least 44 people and wounding more than 160 others. According to the National Counterterrorism Center, it is likely that two female suicide bombers deployed by Al Qaeda in Iraq were responsible.
Jan. 6, 2012 – A suicide car bomb attack killed 26 people in Damascus. The Al Nusrah Front later claimed responsibility for the attack.
Feb. 10, 2012 – Twin suicide car bombings killed 28 people in Aleppo. The Al Nusrah Front later claimed responsibility for the attack.
Mar. 17, 2012 – Two suicide car bombings killed at least 27 people and wounded 100 or more in Damascus. The bombings targeted the Assad regime’s security forces. The Al Nusrah Front later claimed responsibility for the bombings and released a video, translated by SITE, showing the two bombers giving speeches before their attacks.
April 20, 2012 – A suicide bomber attacked Syrian military forces dining at a restaurant in Hama. The Al Nusrah Front later claimed responsibility for the attack, saying the Syrian forces targeted had massacred civilians in a nearby town.
April 24, 2012 – A suicide bomber attacked the Iranian Cultural Consulate in Damascus. The Al Nusrah Front later claimed responsibility for the attack.
April 27, 2012 – A suicide bomber attacked at a mosque in the Midan neighborhood of Damascus. The attack reportedly killed 11 people and wounded 28 more. The Al Nusrah Front later claimed responsibility, saying the attack targeted regime personnel who were attending prayers.
April 30, 2012 – In an apparent attack on Syrian military intelligence services, two bombs are detonated in the town of Idlib. According to Reuters, state-controlled media said that nine people were killed, with 100 more wounded, and two suicide bombers were responsible. An “activist” said that 20 people were killed. The Associated Press also attributed the attack to suicide bombers.
May 10, 2012 – Two suicide car bomb attacks killed at least 55 people and wounded more than 370 others in Damascus. According to the BBC, the “blasts happened near a military intelligence building during morning rush hour.” Days later, it appeared that Al Nusrah claimed credit for the attacks in a video online. Subsequently, however, Al Nusrah denied the validity of the video, saying it had not been published by the group’s official media arm.
May 19, 2012 – A suicide bomber attacked the Syrian intelligence services in Deir al-Zor. According to Reuters, the state news agency said that nine people were killed and approximately 100 others were wounded. The Al Nusrah Front later claimed responsibility for the bombing.
June 1, 2012 – A suicide bomber attacked a Syrian military camp in Idlib. The suicide bomber’s attack was just one component of the complex assault, which also involved an ambush and IED attacks. The Al Nusrah Front later claimed responsibility for the raid.
June 7, 2012 – A suicide bomber attacked a bus carrying state security personnel in Aleppo. The Al Nusrah Front claimed responsibility for the operation.
June 14, 2012 – A suicide bomber attacked state security services outside of Damascus. The Al Nusrah Front claimed responsibility for the attack and said that “many” security personnel were killed.
June 26, 2012 – The Al Nusrah Front claims that it conducted two suicide bombings against Syrian military forces on this day. The terrorist organization also claimed that 250 Syrian soldiers were killed in the attacks, according to translations prepared by SITE. The Long War Journal did not find independent verification for the high number of casualties claimed by the Al Nusrah Front.
June 30, 2012 – In a statement dated this day, the Al Nusrah Front claimed that a suicide bomber attacked a security barrier in Daraa, a town in southern Syria. The group did not say when the attack took place. On Mar. 3, a car bomb was detonated near a military checkpoint in Daraa. The Syrian government claimed it was a suicide attack that killed two people; opposition forces denied that it was a suicide attack. According to a local resident interviewed by Reuters, at least seven people were killed and eight more were wounded. It is unclear if the Mar. 3 attack is the same one claimed by Al Nusrah.
July 18, 2012 – A bomb killed senior Syrian military and intelligence officials. There are conflicting reports as to whether a suicide bombing or a remote-controlled explosive device was used in the attack. Among those killed was Assef Shawkat, the deputy defense minister and former head of Syrian military intelligence. Shawkat, who was the brother-in-law of Bashar al Assad, had supported AQI for years.
July 19, 2012 – In a statement released online days later, the Al Nusrah Front claimed it launched a suicide operation targeting a security barrier in Ma’arat al-Nu’man that killed 60 Syrian soldiers on this day.
Aug. 7, 2012 – In a statement released on this day, the Al Nusrah Front said that a suicide bomber targeted “a military security detachment … in the area of Mhardeh in the Hama countryside.” It is not clear what day the actual attack took place.
Aug. 17, 2012 – The Al Nusrah Front claims that a suicide bomber attacked a gathering of 600 regime “thugs” in Hama on this day. The total number of casualties was not reported.
Aug. 28, 2012 – Al Nusrah claimed it executed a suicide attack “against a large gathering inside the new Equestrian Club” in Hama. The total number of casualties was not reported.
Sept. 2, 2012 – In a statement released on this day, Al Nusrah claimed that a suicide bomber attacked the “Ibn Wardan barrier in Hama governorate.” The total number of casualties was not reported.
Sept. 4, 2012 – A suicide bomber known as Abu Khattab al Shami detonated his explosives-packed car at the airport at Abu Kamal. Fighters then launched a follow-on attack. The total number of casualties was not reported.
Sept. 8, 2012 – A suicide bomber identified as Abu Abdullah al Shami attacked a hospital in Aleppo, killing 27 soldiers and wounding 64 more.
Sept. 11, 2012 – Al Nusrah released a statement claiming that Abu al Farooq al Shamali bombed “the fortress of the enemies” in al Bareed al Thani in Deir al Zour. The number of those killed and wounded in the attack was not disclosed.
Sept. 11, 2012 – Al Nusrah claimed that a suicide bomber struck “a barracks of the enemy” in Idlib.
Sept. 26, 2012 – Al Nusrah claimed it launched a complex suicide assault on the Army Headquarters in Damascus. Four soldiers were killed, and 14 more were wounded.
Sept. 30, 2012 – Al Nusrah claimed credit for a suicide attack that targeted the headquarters of Political and Criminal Security in Qamishli in Hasaka province. The group claimed it killed 30 people and wounded 80 others.
Oct. 3, 2012 – An Al Nusrah suicide bomber detonated a car bomb outside the Officer’s club in Aleppo. Minutes later, a second suicide bomber detonated at the tourist hotel next to the Officer’s club, and then a suicide assault team stormed the hotel.
Oct. 3, 2012 – Al Nusrah launched a suicide attack on the Political Security headquarters in Deir al-Zour, and claimed 50 people were killed and 60 more were wounded.
Oct. 9, 2012 – Al Nusrah launched a complex suicide attack on the Air Force intelligence branch in Harasta outside of Damascus. More than 100 casualties were reported.
Oct. 9, 2012 – Al Nusrah claimed credit for a complex attack on an outpost in Ain Tarma near Damascus that killed 75 Syrian soldiers.
Oct. 12, 2012 – Al Nusrah launched a suicide attack on the Political Security headquarters in Deir al-Zour.
Nov. 5, 2012 – Al Nusrah claimed the suicide attack in Hama that killed more than 50 Syrian soldiers.
Nov. 9, 2012 – A suicide bomber killed several military personnel at a checkpoint near the city of Soran in Hama.
Nov. 10, 2012 – A pair of suicide bombers attacked a military camp in Daraa that is used by military and intelligence forces. The attack killed 20 soldiers.
Nov. 19, 2012 – Al Nusrah claimed to have killed 60 Syrian soldiers and destroyed two tanks in an attack on a military unit in Barad.
Nov. 21, 2012 – Al Nusrah claimed to attack a French hospital in Aleppo. The hospital was being used as a military headquarters, the group claimed.
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